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如何提高英语阅读速度  

2008-12-19 22:14:11|  分类: 教育教学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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由于高考的阅读要求在逐年提高,要求考生在短时间内完成试题,对考生来说,一个词一个词地阅读英语文章肯定时间来不及,从高一开始就要培养学生意群阅读的习惯。那么什么是意群阅读呢?意群阅读就是把意义和结构上有关联的几个词连接成较完整的信息,成组成组输入大脑的方法。使用这种方法阅读不仅可以提高阅读速度,而且有利于对句子的整体理解。例如:When two cars travelling at 30mph hit each other (1), an unbelted driver (2),would meet the windshield(3),with a force equal to diving headfirst into the ground from a height of 10 meters(4)。意群阅读习惯养成之后,再给学生点拨阅读技巧。按照文章的体裁进行分类教学。记叙文按照时间线索,以人物为中心,关注事情的开端、发展、和结束。说明文和议论文都有它的主题句,一般是在每个段落的第一句。试题包括概括主旨大意题、推测作者写作意图等深层理解题,一般情况下可以从文章的第一段和最后一段得出大意,如果还看不出来,重读每一段的第一句或第一段和最后一段的最后一句。另外要特别关注以下关联词:Conclusion Words:in conclusion, therefore, in all, thus ,Hence So In summary;Continue the Idea Words Similarly Moreover Additionally In the same way Likewise Contradiction or Contrast Words Neverthless Nonetheless However But Although Though Even though Notwithstanding Yet Despite In spite of On the one hand…on the other hand While Unlike

下面就不同的考题进行分类阐述解题技巧

 

Main Idea: Look in the first and last paragraphs for the main idea. Any conclusion words like therefore, thus, so, hence, etc. that you see are most likely introducing the main idea. The correct answer will say the same thing as it says in the text, but using different words. The Main Idea is not always stated explicitly in the passage – in fact, more likely than not, it is not stated explicitly. Therefore, in order to answer this type of question when it is more implicit:

1.      Re-read the first line of every passage, and the last line of the first and last paragraphs. This should give you the general structure or outline of the argument, with which you can answer the Main Idea question.

2.      After determining the general structure or content of the argument, eliminate answer choices that are too broad or too specific, i.e. answer choices that go beyond the content of the passage, or that deal with content only discussed in one paragraph of the passage.

3.      Make brief notes – a couple of words- regarding the Main Idea on the text on your scrap paper while you read.

Primary Purpose: What is the author trying to do? What is his intention? If he is evaluating a theory, then the answer could be something like "Discuss an interpretation". Note that the correct answer would deal with "an interpretation", because the author is only dealing with one theory. If the Primary Purpose is to criticize 2 new books, then his intention or his primary purpose might be to "Critique new studies". Again, as in Main Idea questions, re-read the first line of every passage, and the last line of the first and last paragraphs. This should give you the general structure or outline of the argument, with which you can answer the Primary Purpose question.

Note: A good main idea or primary purpose does not go beyond the scope of the passage, nor does it limit itself to discussing only one part of the passage.

 

 

What is the primary purpose of this passage?

A)

discuss the importance of the television program Star Trek for the international space program

B)

discuss important theoretical work concerned with faster-than-light space travel.

C)

explore a dispute among theoretical physicists regarding the uses of space flight

D)

describe the possible uses of space-warping material

E)

explain how a space-warping bubble would work in the real world

 

Explanation

This is a Primary Purpose question, so we have to determine what the author is trying to do or say in this passage. So, let's read the first and last lines of the passage in order to get an idea of the primary purpose. The first line says "Great news for Star Trek fans: warp drives that can propel starships around the Galaxy faster than the speed of light may be possible after all--with a little help from Dr Who." The last line is a quote by a physicist that says "Of course, there are still some basic questions--like how does one go about constructing this Tardis space-time--but it puts the concept of space warps back on the agenda." From both these sentences, we get the idea of space travel, faster than light travel and space warps – maybe this is a discussion of faster than light space travel. Does that match what you have already read? Yes, basically this is a discussion of the theoretical state of play in the area of faster-than-light space travel. Do any of the 5 answer choices match that? Yes – B, even if the wording is somewhat different from how we are wording it, the idea is almost exactly the same. B is the answer.

Another way of getting to the answer is through elimination of obviously incorrect answer choices. We can eliminate A because the author mentions the popular science fiction program Star Trek merely to introduce the idea of faster-than-light travel, and nothing more. C is a stronger possibility because the second paragraph of the passage does discuss some disagreement among physicists about the possibility of creating a warp-drive, but in the same paragraph the theoretical dilemma seems resolved. Moreover, since the author only discusses this in one paragraph, it cannot be the primary purpose of the entire passage. We can eliminate D because the author does not go into detail discussing the uses of space-warping material. And we can discard E because the author does not really go into how the space-warping bubble would work in the real world.

 

Title Questions

by Stephen Bolton, 20th August, 1999

Title questions are very similar to Main Idea questions, though are less common. Though some of the example paassage we use in this tutorial and in the Practice Section are from the New Scientist, and therefore have titles, the passages in the real GMAT will not have titles. The question might look like this:

"Which of the following titles best summarizes the passage as a whole?"

Strategy:

Treat this as a Main Idea question. A good title sums up the central idea of a passage. Therefore, in order to answer this type of question:

1.      Look in the first and last paragraphs for the main idea. Any conclusion words like therefore, thus, so, hence, etc. that you see are most likely introducing the Main Idea/Title. The correct answer will say the same thing as it says in the text, but using different words.

2.      Re-read the first line of every passage, and the last line of the first and last paragraphs. This should give you the general structure or outline of the argument, with which you can answer the Title question.

3.      Make brief notes – a couple of words- regarding the Title on the text on your scrap paper while you read.

4.      After determining the general structure or content of the argument, eliminate answer choices that are too broad or too specific, i.e. answer choices that go beyond the content of the passage, or that deal with content only discussed in one paragraph of the passage.

 

What would be an appropriate title for this passage?

 

A)

Constructing The Tardis

 

B)

How To Make Space-Warping Material

C)

Bubbles In Space-Time

D)

Faster-Than-Light Travel: A Possibility?

E)

Debate On The Uses of Space Travel

 

Explanation

This passage actually already has a title, "Warp Factor One". But we have to look for another title possibility, one that would be most like the Main Idea of the passage. We look at the first and last paragraphs, and since the Main Idea is that researchers now feel that faster-than-light travel maybe more than mere fantasy, we can find the correct answer choice. Does any answer choice corrspond to this idea? Yes- answer D, which is the correct answer.

We can also find the correct answer through elimination. There is nowhere in the passage where it discusses building Dr. Who's Tardis (pity!), so we can eliminate A. Nor does it tell us how to make space-warping material. Eliminate B. While bubbles in space-time are discussed at some length in one of the paragraphs, we cannot say this is the main concern of the passage, and thus should eliminate C. And nowhere are the uses of space travel discussed, so discard E.

 

Specific Detail or Target questions are probably the most common types of questions, and the easiest to answer. The question might look like this:

"According to the passage,...."

"The passage states that ...."

Strategy

The Specific Detail or Target that we are looking for could be a Line Number, or a Name or Date. Go to the Line Number or Name or Date, and then read several lines above and below it. Find the answer choice that basically says the same thing as in the passage, though usually with different words or word order.

 

 

According to the passage, Pfenning and Ford

A)

demonstrated conclusively the impossibility of faster-than-light travel

B)

explored the possibility of bubbles that warp space

C)

supported the work of Alcubierre

D)

work at of the Institute for Theoretical Physics at the Catholic University of Leuven

E)

suggested that a warp drive was not physically possible

 

Explanation

This is a Specific Detail/Target question, and therefore we look for the Name, Line Number, or Date that will help us. In this case, the detail consists of the names Pfenning and Ford. We scan the text, starting from the top of the passage, looking for the names Pfenning and Ford. We find them in only place, at the beginning of the second paragraph. We read a couple of lines above the names, and keep reading until a few lines after the names. It says "But in 1997 Michael Pfenning and Larry Ford at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts, apparently killed this ingenious idea by showing that it needed far more than the entire energy content of the Universe to work (This Week, 26 July 1997, p 6)". The line after that says the research of another physicist then resurrected the possibility of FTL travel, negating the implications of the research of Pfenning and Ford. Now we can answer the question. Do any of the answer choices match the information given around the target area? Yes- E.

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